ENUGU STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES, MANAGEMENT
DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY AND ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT
PRINCIPLES OF FORESTRY
A forest is an area where the vegetation consists mainly of trees, which are tall or woody. plants. Other types of plants and many animals also live in the forest.
Forest and Wildlife as Renewable Natural Resources?
what is a Resource?
A resource is any form of energy and/or matter necessary to satisfy the physiological needs of humanity or to sustain all various activities leading to production.
Resources may be classified into two broad groups:
What are natural resources?.
Natural resources can broadly be defined as those things in Are natural environment that can be used by man. Natural resources which lend themselves Aramaic by man are mainly beneficial. Generally, natural resources indicate the potential wealth of a country This potential wealth, when properly harnessed by the people of the country, can become a key factor in economic reconstruction and natural development. Effective utilization of natural resources is of great aid in industrial development.
Particularly true of resources derived from geological processes
e.g. Coal, Oil (Petroleum). The versatility of timber will not” only, leave the timber resources intact, but could lead to an increase in timber value- as the: timber increases in both height and diameter (volume). The bigger the timber ‘the more the value.
However, if timber’ is left unharnessed after an advanced age of maturity, deterioration may set in due to pathological hazards- heart rot, etc..
- Finiteness:- This refers to the quantity available at a given time. The quantity of natural resources available is absolutely fixed. This is what the engineers and technologists refer to as “proven supply”. I.e. The quantity of the resources known to exist. E.g. Resources obtained through geological processes. Their development requires a time scale and quantity cannot be increased in the ‘short” run. “
RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES
A renewable resource is a natural resource
replenish with the passage of time either through biological. reproduction or other naturally recurring processes. . Renewable resources are a part of tofEarth’&natura1 environment and the largest components of its ecosphere. A positive life cycle assessment is a key indicator of a resource’s susta4nabiity. Paul” Alfred Weis defined Renewable Resources as:” “The. total range of living organisms providing man with food, fibers, drugs, ‘etc. Renewal resources may be the source of power for renewable energy.
However, if the rate at which the renewable resource is consumed exceeds its renewable rate, renewal and sustainability will not be ensured The term renewable resource also describes stems like sustainable agriculture and water resources Sustainable harvesting of renewable resources i.e. maintaining a positive renewal rate, can reduce air pollution, soil contamination, habitat destruction, and land degradation, Gasoline, Coal, Natura1 Gas, Diesel, and Other ‘commodities. derived from Fossil fuels, as well as minerals like copper and others are non-renewable resources without a sustainable yield..
RENEWABLE RESOURCES, ENDANGERED
Ocean overfishing is simply the taking of wildlife from the sea at rates too high for fishing species to replace themselves.
Atlantic cool stocks are severely overfished leading to abrupt collapse Tuna meat is driving overfishing to endanger some species like the bluefin tuna. The European community and other organizations are trying to regulate fishing to protect species and prevent their extinction. The ‘United Nations on the law of the sea treaty deals with ‘aspects of overfishing Examples of overfishing exist in areas such as the North Sea of Europe, the Grand Banks of North America, and the East China Sea of Asia The decline of penguin population is caused in part by overfishing, caused by human competition over the same renewable resources.
- SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE.
The phrase sustainable agriculture was coined by Australian agricultural scientist, Gordon Claymont. It has been defined, as “an integrated system. of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will last over the long term”. Expansion of agricultural land has an impact on biodiversity and contributes to deforestation. The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAQ) of the United Nations estimates that in the coming decades cropland will contribute to be lost to industrial and urban development, along. with the reclamation of wetlands, and conversion of forest to cultivation, resulting in the loss of biodiversity and increased soil erosion.
Although air and sunlight are available everywhere on Earth, crops also depend on soil nutrients and the availability of water.
Monoculture is a method of growing only one crop a: a time in a given field, which can damage land ‘and cause it
to become either unusable or suffer from reduced ‘fields, Monoculture- can also cause the build-up of pathogens and pests that target one specific species. The Great Irish Famine (1845-1849) is” a well-known example of the damages monoculture. . .‘,
Crop rotation and long-term crop rotations confer the replenishment of nitrogen through the use of green manure in sequence with cereals and other crops and can improve soil structure and fertility by alternating deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plants. Other methods to combat: it soil nutrients are returning to natural cycles that annually flood cultivated lands (returning lost nutrients indefinitely) such as the flooding of the Nile, the long-term use of biochar, and the use of crop and livestock landraces that are adapted to less than ideal conditions such as pests, drought, or lack of. nutrients.
- DEFORESTATION: ,..
Deforestation, as well as being: a renewable resource for fuel and building material, trees protect the environment by absorbing in carbon-dioxide and creating oxygen: The destruction of ‘rainforests is one of the critical causes of climate change. Deforestation causes carbon dioxide to linger in the atmosphere. As carbon dioxide accrues, it produces a layer in the atmosphere that traps radiation from the sun the radiation converts to heat which causes globá1 warming, which is better. known as the greenhouse effect Deforestation so affects the water cycle. it reduces the content’ of water in the soil and groundwater as well as : atmospheric moisture. Deforestation reduces soil, and cohesion, so .that erosion flooding, and landslides are assured. Rain forest shelter many species and organisms. providing local populations with food and other commodities. In this way, biofuels may well be unsustainable if their production’ contributes to deforestation.
- ENDANGERED SPECIES:-
Some renewable resources, species, and organisms are facing a very big risk of extinction caused by growing human population and over-consumption. It has been estimated that over 40% of all living species on Earth are at risk of going extinct. Many nations have laws to protect hunted species and restrict the practice of hunting. Other conservation method includes restricting land development or creating preserves.
- WATER RESOURCES:-
Water can be considered a renewable resource material when carefully controlled usage, treatment, and release are followed. If not, it would become a non-renewable resource at that location. For example/ground water is usually. removed from an aquifer at a rate much greater than its very low natural recharge, and so groundwater is considered nonrenewable. Removal of water from the pore spaces may cause permanent compaction ‘that cannot. removed..
Water pollution. is one” of the main concerns : regarding water resources. It is. estimated that 22% of worldwide water is used in industry. ‘Major industrial users include hydroelectric dams, thermoelectric power plants which use water for cooling, ore and oil refineries, which, use water in chemical processes, and manufacturing plants,’ which use water” as a solvent. ‘ ‘
- RENEWABLE ENERGY
Renewable energy is energy from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Common applications of renewable energies are electricity generation and motor fuels. The reported problem with these renewable resources is that it is difficult and expensive to harness enough power from them to match the effectiveness of non-renewable resources.
- SOLAR ENERGY
Solar energy is the most abundant and easily available renewable resource and has been harnessed by humans since ancient times. The solar energy not used by man is used by plants and other organisms in photosynthesis. In one year, the sun delivers more than 10,000 times the energy that humans currently use and almost twice the amount of energy that will ever be obtained from all of the planet’s non-renewable resources.
Solar energy is the conversion of sunlight into electricity either directly using photovoltaic’s (PV), or indirectly: ping concentrated solar power (CSP). Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam.
Photovoltaic converts light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. There are many domestic. applications of solar power including solar cookers, solar stills, solar water heating, solar, heating, and air conditioning. .:
- WIND POWER
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy. Most ‘modem electrical wind power is generated by converting the rotation of turbine blades into electrical currents by means of an electrical generator.
Windmills provide mechanical power, and were originally developed for milling grains for food production. Other industrial uses of wind power is also used to propel ships using sails.
Hydropower is energy derived from the movement of water in rivers and oceans, originally used for irrigation and the operation of various. mechanical devices. Since the early 20th century, the term ‘is used’ ‘almost exclusively in conjunction with the modern development of hydroelectric power. Conventional hydroelectric power involves creating a darn and using the resulting water force to turn a water turbine and generator. “
Other electricity generating, methods are run-of-the-river hydroelectricity, which captures the kinetic energy in rivers or streams, without the use of darns, and, pumped-storage hydroelectricity, which ‘stores water pumped: during periods low demand to be released for a generation ‘when’ demand Ls high. ,. ‘
- GEOTHERMAL ENERGY.
Geothermal energy comes from the Earth’s crust and originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) arid from radioactive decay of minera1s (80%). The available energy from the Earth’s crust and mantle is approximately equal.al: to that of incoming solar energy.
Geothermal heating is the direct use of geothermal, energy for heating applications. Geothermal electricity is electricity generated from geothermal energy using technologies like superheaters, flash steam power plants, and binary cycle power plants. The first geothermal power station was built in Landrello, Italy. Other countries that have geothermal power stations are Japan, Iceland, the Philippines, and the United States. In Iceland, geothermal energy is used for electricity and heat.
- BIOFUEL :
A biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation. Biofuels include fuels derived from biomass conversion, as well as solid biomass, liquid fuels, and various biogases. Bioethanol is alcohol: made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn. Sugarcane is from vegetable oil and animal fats. Biodiesel is produced. from oil or fats using trans-etherification and the most common biofuel.’ Europe. Biogas is methane produced by the process of summer operating capacity actively supplying power to the grid, producing about 1.4, percent of the U.S. electricity supply.
Bioplastics are a form of plastic derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, pea starch, or microbiota. The most common form of bioplastic is thermoplastic starch. Other forms include cellulose bioplastics, polyester polylactic acid, and bio-derived polyethylene. The production and use of bioplastics are generally regarded as a more sustainable activity when compared with plastic protection from petroleum (heteroplastic), however, manufacturing of bioplastic materials is often still reliant upon petroleum as an energy and materials source. Because of the fragmentation in the market and ambiguous definitions, it is difficult to describe the total market size for bioplastic, but estimates put global production capacity at 327,000 tonnes. In contrast, global consumption of all flexible packaging is estimated at around 12.3 million tonnes.
Bioashalt is an asphalt alternative made from non-petroleum-based renewable resources. Manufacturing sources of bioasphait include sugar, molasses and rice, corn and potato, starches, and vegetable oil-based waste. Asphalt made with vegetable oil-based binders was patented by colas, S. A in France in 2004.
SIVI-CULTURE is the practice of controlling the establishment growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values, The name comes from the Latin — Silver (forest) and culture (as in growing). The study of forests and woods is termed Silvo1o.
Silver culture also because on making sure that the treatment(s) of forest stands are used to preserve and better their productivity. To some, the distinction between forestry and silver culture is that silver culture is applied at the stand level and forestry is broader. For example, John D. Matthews says ‘complete regimes for regenerating, tending, and harvesting forest” is called a System So active management Is required for silver-culture, whereas forestry can be natural, conserved land a stand level treatment being applied.
A common taxonomy of silver culture into regenerating, tending, and harvesting. Techniques.
STATE OF NIGERIA FORESTS
Nigeria. is blessed with a large expanse of land and variable
vegetation but this important resource is not sustainably used or managed. many rural dwellers .n the past have treated our forest resources
as in-exhaustible. Today the story is different. The average ruler
dweller now realizes that the forest is ‘finished’ but
continues to force people to exploit even the relics of remaining forests.
The Federal Government has, over the years, attempted to generate baseline data on the state of our forests including their uses, These studies have provided data for a better understanding of the state of forest resources, the rate of forest resources, the .rate of environmental degradation, and the rate of forest depletion. they also emphasized that present-day forest cover is under pressure as a result of human activities such as agricultural development where vast lands are cleared without conservation considerations, large-scale pen-urban housing project development, fuel-wood generation, uncontrolled forest harvesting including poaching for logs and poles, and urbanization.
In Nigeria, deforestation or loss of vegetation or the selective exploitation of forests for economic or social reasons – is very common, In most areas major losses have been recorded in vegetation, forest complexity (diversity), or germ plasma (quantity) i.e deforestation rate in the country is about 3.5% per year, translating to a loss of 350,000-400,000 ha of forest land per year. Recent studies show that forests now occupy about 923,767km2 or about 10 million ha. This is about 10% of Nigeria’s forest land ä.rea and well below FAQ’s recommended national minimum of 25%. Between 1990 and 2005 alone, the world, lost 3.3% of its forests while Nigeria lost 21%.
In addition, some state governments are removing protected status from forest estates without regard for the environment. The state forest departments have been curtailing the spate of requests to establish ‘large-scale oil palm plantations in forest estates. The unfortunate impression that has thus been created is that the forest estate exists as a land bank for other sectors as demands continue nationwide.
As the forests are exploited, so too is the biodiversity. Plant and animal genetic resources are also lost with this important genetic. resource, vital for breeding in the future Conserving the wild relatives of cultivated crops is also needed. What factors continue to threaten biodiversity and contribute to poverty? These include deforestation, desertification, habitat alteration, invasive alien species (plants and animals) important, poor land management (fire and agricultural systems + grazing), climate change, unilateral development decisions, poor political accountability, and poor budget allocation, and release, and implementation.
We cannot afford not to conserve our breasts and thus lose the vital ingredients of rural development. The situation is getting worse every day and the need for forest conservation and restoration is becoming critical. With the new National Forestry Policy and the National Document on Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan, â new approach is needed now to forestry resources conservation in Nigeria. Enforcement and a community approach will produce positive results.
All stakeholders need to understand that biodiversity is critical to the maintenance of a healthy environment. Its role is enormous in meeting human needs while maintaining:’ the ecological processes upon which our survival depends. Biodiversity not only provides direct benefits such as food, medicine, and energy; it also affords us a “Life Support System.” Biodiversity is required for the recycling of essential elements it is also responsible for mitigating pollution, protecting watersheds, arid combating soil erosion. Controlling deforestation will ensure that biodiversity exists and can help reduce the impacts of climate change and thus act as a buffer against excessive variations in weather and climate. It can ‘then protect us from catastrophic events. Increasing our knowledge about biodiversity can transform our values and beliefs. Knowledge about biodiversity is valuable in stimulating technological innovation and providing the framework for sustainable development. Let us protect our forests as a start.
DEFINITION OF TERMS ‘
- Forest Regeneration: This involves rejuvenating a forest. If a
Forest is to survive, young trees need to be continually
developing to replace the old mature ones as they are cut
down, This is achieved by both natural and man-made
processes like: .
- Selective Exploitation:- This involves felling trees of a
specific girth, age, and growth, which means mature, trees are felled to allow the younger ones to develop and replace the felled ones. . . , .‘.‘
- Rotational Exploitation:- This involves dividing the forest into many partitions which are then exploited yearly in rotation. Depending on the number of partitions, ‘it can take up to 40 years to return to the first partition.
- Self-Seeding:- Some plants like Neem, Oil bean, Rubber, and Gmelina produce viable seeds which are dispersed by various natural methods and which can easily germinate, the young plants then replace their parents when they are removed.
- Re-Seeding:- Forestry Department. Workers Intentionally Scatter Seeds of desirable tree species in the forest to enrich it many years later. . .
- Use of Trees with Tillering Ability:- When some trees are felled, some dormant buds at the sides can sprout at the foot of the stump and grow again into full-fledged trees this is called tillering.
- Reforestation:- Reforestation is the organized planting of trees to create. in areas which has lost, their forest characteristics as a result of burning, farming V and indiscriminate tree felling.
- A forestation:- This means establishing forests in areas where there have never been any It is aimed at reducing soil erosion and preventing desert encroachment, especially in the North, close to the Sahara desert
- Forest Reserve:- This is a piece of land set apart preservation of economic plants and animals.
- Population pressure.
- To increase soil fertility.
- Areas of land under dispute V . . V
- To prevent natural hazards like erosion and desert encroachment.
- Taunya System: This involves the integration of crop farming with forestry. The forestry department occasional °- part of the forest reserves in succession and gives them out to farmers under specified conditions. The farmer is that provided with fertile forest land on which to grow his crops.
- Deforestation:- Is the destruction of forests. It may or not be deliberate.
- Forest Regulations:-
- Restrictions on cutting down trees for farming or buildings.
- Licenses to restrict hunting and fishing.
- Fire regulations to prevent the wanton setting of fires.
- Orders to restrict overuse of forests for industrial raw materials. Forest trees should be felled only when they are mature by selective exploitation.
*. WILDLIFE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
Conservation is the management of human use c the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generations while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations. Conservation as rendered involves the preservation, maintenance, sustainable utilization, restoration, and enhancement of the natural environment.
Wildlife or wild animal species refers to all living things, plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates outside the direct control of man (that is, all non-cultivated plants and non-domesticated animals) It embraces all animals in their natural habitat They are undomesticated animals which maybe small organisms only visible to humans if seen through a microscope or as big as the elephant hale Wildlife includes but it is not limited to insects, spiders and birds, reptiles, fish, amphibians, and mammals if not domesticated.
Biodiversity or Biological diversity refers to the total variability of living organisms on the planet. It is defined in terms of genes,
species, and ecosystem which are the outcome of over 3 thousand years of evolution. As a biological concept, biodiversity is essential. or a necessary tool for human survival.
Wildlife management has been defined as the combination and application of business methods and ecological knowledge to manipulate undomesticated fauna and flora (wild animal and plant) resources in a way that ensures their products and services will be sustained, The application of ecological principles and knowledge to the management of wildlife entails certain basic approaches viz;.
- Preservation of wild, specie and allowing nature to follow a balanced, devoid of any human intervention
- Direct or indirect manipulations of wild fauna population such as through cropping, culling, habitat alteration, and other habitat management tolls so as not to exceed carrying capacity
c Maintenance of useful and desirable species
- Sustained- Yield management through consumptive utilization to annual production capacity Consumptive utilization is the extraction of resources for the production of consumer goods and services. Apart from providing food other types of consumptive uses of wildlife Includes products such as skins and hides, materials for handcrafts, or ceremonial use, oils and medicines, live animal trades, sport, hunting stock resources for domestication or improvement of domesticated breeds, farming activities, and mineral resources exploitation. All activities are directed towards the production of goods and F services often lead to the degradation of the environment.
Non-Consumptive utilization is defined as the provision of natural amenities and services for recreational use such as game viewing, nature trail, swimming, boating, and other water-related recreational activities in lakes and waterfalls. it includes spiritua1and religious values, values due to the willingness of local and international user-public (tourist) to pay to see living and non-living resources in the natural setting,
Sustainable use is the rate of harvest within the capacity of species and their habitats to maintain themselves. sustainable use can be non-consumptive or consumptive In nature.
Commercial use is defined as the management of native wildlife for profit. .. The terms utilization and commercial, use are interchangeable.
*. PROBLEMS OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA
The problems facing wildlife and wildlife management in Nigeria are as a result of inter-related factors. These factors are social, cultural or ecological in nature. A few of these are as follows;
- The greatest and probably the most serious problem of. wildlife management in Nigeria is the high rate of illegal hunting in degenerated resources coupled with the misuse of fire in open range land by hunters and farmers.
2 As a result of land, hunting most of the moist rainforest areas the rangelands. Illegal settlements inside game reserves and the parks had robbed the nation of her wildlife resources. . . .. . . . . ,. . .
- In both the rain forest and the savannah zones of Nigeria, the pressure due to logging operations, charcoal, and fuel wood production had led to the destruction of our natural vegetation. .. . ,.. .
4,. Nomadic herdsmen had over the years constituted a menace, the herds graze within and outside the parks causing havoc.
- Inadequacy of trained and skilled manpower to execute wildlife programs at both federal and state levels.
- Inadequate funding of wildlife conservation projects coupled with poor coordination is another big constraint. The absence of a fully pledged and well-funded Federal Department of wildlife to handle wildlife programmes. .
- Lack of effective legislation to relate to exploitation and sales of wildlife and wildlife products in Nigeria. .
- The level of poverty of the masses of the people which had over the years slumped into low income had aggravated the rate of their dependence on forest and forest products including wildlife resources.
*. SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA
The numerous constraints facing wildlife management in Nigeria call for a national strategy that address the various courses involved, It is very essential that some fundamental institutional reforms are established to sharpen the focus of effort in wildlife management and conservation in the developing countries. Some suggested solutions include;
1: Education:- Perhaps, the first step towards effective wildlife management and conservation is a carefully organized public education program that is targeted at both decision makers
and the public. :
- Effective Legislation:- Legislation as a conservation tool is a means. But experience has shown that it is by no means an end. It is therefore suggested that effective legislation that will involve state and Federal: Staff in cooperation with the local masses in and around reserves/parks, should be carefully formulated.
- Funding:- It is suggested that an adequate funding should be available to train personnel, purchase wildlife equipment, such as patrol vehicles, communication gadgets. etc.
Monitoring of our conservation areas should. be’, adequately and timely funded while parks should be elevated, from their current rate of neglect to enviable tourist, delight like their ‘ counterparts in East Africa.
.4. Research:- There is still a need for more research efforts towards the provision of necessary data for the formulation of an up-to-date management plan for our park, reserves, and sanctuaries.
- Currently, most of our 2005. The Museum’s arc in a state of neglect, the development of 2005 should receive development attention.
in an attempt to carry everybody along in crus.de of’ wildlife management, local participation by wilderness and non-governmental organizations should be evolved and well funded.